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Baking Substitution List

When cooking gluten-free, it’s not always a cup-for-cup replacement. Amounts may vary, and other chemical agents may be needed.

Baking-substitution-list-2-SunCakeMomGluten-free flours can require more moisture and often thickeners/binders such as Xanthan gum or Guar gum added.

  • 1 cup whole-wheat flour: 1/2 cup all purpose + 1/2 cup whole-wheat flour
  • 1 cup all-purpose: 1/2 cup whole-wheat + 1/2 cup all-purpose (white). If you make this 100% whole-wheat, baked goods will be “dense.”
  • 1 cup all-purpose (white) flour: 1 cup soft white wheat also called whole-wheat baking flour
  • Almond flour: substitute 1:1 with all-purpose (white) flour. Almond flour tends to carry more moisture. To help offset the moisture factor when baking with almond flour, you may need to add even more almond flour or an alternative gluten-free flour, chia seeds or flax seeds. Almond flour lacks the binding agent gluten. Egg whites make for a great binder because they can help firm things up without altering the flavor.
  • Coconut flour is extraordinarily absorbent and very little coconut flour is needed to successfully produce a recipe. In baked goods, you generally want to substitute 1/4 cup to 1/3 cup coconut flour for 1 cup grain-based flour. You will also need to increase the number of eggs. In general for every one cup of coconut flour you use, you will need to use six beaten eggs in your recipe in addition to approximately one cup liquid such as coconut milk. When baking with coconut, it is best to use established recipes rather than waste considerable expense and time with experimentation.
  • Buckwheat flour: Just like substituting for whole-wheat above. 1/2 cup buckwheat + 1/2 cup all-purpose to 1 cup all-purpose.

1 Egg can be substituted with:

For moisture and texture:

  • 1/2 mashed banana
  • 1/4 cup unsweetened applesauce (or other pureed fruit such as pears or prunes)
  • 1/4 cup canned pumpkin puree
  • 1/4 cup plain yogurt or sour cream
  • 1/4 cup pureed tofu + 1 tablespoon flour
  • 1/4 cup oil
  • 1 tablespoon ground Flax seed + 3 tablespoons warm water. (Mix and let stand for 5 minutes until gel-like.)
    commercial egg replacer

As a leavening agent:

  • 2 tablespoons water + 1 tablespoon oil + 2 teaspoons baking powder
  • 1 tablespoon apple cider or white distilled vinegar + 1 teaspoon baking soda
  • 2 tablespoons water + 1 tablespoon oil + 2 teaspoons baking powder
  • 1 tablespoon apple cider or white distilled vinegar + 1 teaspoon baking soda

Psyllium husk powder can be substituted with:

  • Chia seeds or Flax seeds. For a recipe that calls for a 1/3 cup of psyllium husk fiber powder, a 1/3 cup of ground chia seeds or ground flax seeds will work.
  • Xanthan gum. Use a 1:1 ratio to replace psyllium husk with xanthan gum as well.

Creme of tartar:

Cream of tartar is an acid. It’s a byproduct of wine production, the residue left on the barrels.

Cream of tartar is used as a leavening agent, because when it’s combined with baking soda, together they produce carbon dioxide gas. That’s the same gas that’s produced by yeast in bread baking. When it’s added to egg whites, it boosts the strength of the individual air bubbles and slows down their natural tendency to deflate. And when added to simple syrup, it prevents sugar’s natural tendency to re-bond and form crystals.

  • For every ½ teaspoon of cream of tartar in the recipe, use 1 teaspoon lemon juice or white vinegar.
  • For every egg white add ½ teaspoon of lemon juice.


2 thoughts on “Baking Substitution List”

  1. Your information is wonderful, thank you! Do you know if psyllium can substitute for coconut flour, and in what ratio? The insoluble fiber in coconut flour is a problem for a good number of people.

    1. The question is what do you want to achieve? We generally use coconut flour as a flour substitute or occasionally to absorb excess moisture in recipes. Psyllium is rarely used on its own but rather as a binding agent, thickener in gluten free baking. It absorbs moisture similarly to coconut flour but its applications differ.

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