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All About Rice – Rice Types

Trying to separate rice but keep getting stuck? Check out what’s the secret that holds or keeps rice apart!

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While rice is a nutritious grain that is a staple food for many people around the world, it also has some potential drawbacks.

  • High Glycemic Index
    Rice has a relatively high glycemic index, which means that it can cause a rapid spike in blood sugar levels. This can be a problem for people with diabetes or other conditions that affect blood sugar control.
  • Low Fiber Content
    White rice is a refined grain that has been stripped of its bran and germ, which are the parts of the grain that contain most of the fiber. Fiber is important for digestive health and can help to slow down the absorption of sugar into the bloodstream.
  • Potential Arsenic Contamination
    Some rice, particularly varieties grown in areas with high arsenic levels in the soil, may contain high levels of arsenic. Arsenic is a toxic element that can cause cancer and other health problems.
  • Low Nutrient Content
    White rice is a low-nutrient food that is not a good source of vitamins or minerals. Brown rice is a better choice, as it is higher in fiber and contains some vitamins and minerals. However, it is still important to eat rice in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

How to make rice healthier

  • Choose brown rice over white rice.
    Brown rice is a whole grain that is higher in fiber and nutrients than white rice.
  • Rinse brown rice before cooking.
    This can help to remove some of the arsenic that may be present in the rice. Soaking before cooking removes even more. Check out: All About Washing Rice
  • Limit rice intake.
    Rice is a good source of calories, so it is important to eat it in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Rice Types

The rice that most of us are familiar with today comes from Oryza sativa, subspecies of which produce rice as varied as the vinegared stuff used in sushi and the long and fluffy grains found in biryani. This rice was domesticated in China anywhere between 8,200 and 13,500 years ago.

While the rice domesticated in Brazil no longer exists, having been abandoned after European colonizers arrived, African rice (Oryza glaberrima) was domesticated some 2,000 to 3,000 years ago and is still grown today, although solely for sustenance. It is unlikely you’ll ever find examples of it in stores.

Once domesticated, Oryza sativa spread across Asia and, subsequently, the world. Two major subspecies emerged: japonica and indica. The japonica subspecies of rice is marked by short, fat grains that are typically sticky when cooked. Basmati rice is one of the most widely known examples. The indica variety has long, thin grains that are drier and flakier when cooked. Those big bags of Carolina rice you see at the grocery store are also of the indica variety.

Rice is also classified according to the way it’s grown. The vast majority of rice in the world—about 75% of total rice production—is lowland rice grown in irrigated fields. But even though rainfed upland varieties of rice make up a far smaller proportion of total rice production in the world, there are nevertheless 100 million people who rely on that kind of rice as their staple food.

Rice type by processing

  • White rice
    This is the rice we most likely all know in one way or other. It’s nutrition poor with high glycemic index yet provides the most fun.
  • Brown rice
    This type of rice is unprocessed and contains the bran and germ, which are rich in nutrients. Every rice has a brown variety.
  • Converted rice
    It has been parboiled, which partially gelatinizes the starch in the grain, making it softer and more digestible than brown rice.
  • Enriched rice
    It has been fortified with vitamins and minerals, but the nutrients are only on the surface of the grains, so rinsing before cooking can wash them away.

Rice types by structure

Starch consists of two types of molecules: amylose and amylopectin. These molecules react differently when introduced to water during cooking.

Amylopectin is soluble in water and, when cooked, forms a viscous solution that does not gel. This property makes it ideal for culinary applications like creating flowing pie fillings. It also contributes to the sticky texture of cooked rice.

Indica rice varieties typically contain higher levels of amylose and lower levels of amylopectin compared to japonica varieties. This explains why rice varieties like basmati and jasmine tend to cook up into separated grains, while Japanese varieties produce slightly sticky cooked grains.

Indica rice

Indica rice varieties are widely consumed for their long-grain and aromatic properties, offering a healthier alternative to traditional rice varieties. This type of rice is long-grain and fluffy, making it ideal for dishes like pilaf and fried rice.

  • Basmati Rice: Basmati rice is renowned for its soft, fluffy texture, distinct grains, and subtle aroma reminiscent of pandan leaves. It’s a staple in Indian cuisine, often used in pilafs, biryanis, and alongside curry dishes. Basmati rice is also available in brown and polished white varieties.
  • Jasmine Rice: Jasmine rice is another aromatic indica variety grown primarily in Thailand. Its grains are slightly shorter and plumper than basmati grains, with a more pronounced aroma, particularly when fresh. Jasmine rice is commonly served alongside Thai dishes, such as phat phrik khing and chicken massaman curry. It’s also ideal for Thai-style fried rice.
  • Calasparra and Bomba Rice: These short-grain rice varieties from Spain are specifically recommended for paella preparation. They absorb a considerable amount of liquid while maintaining their distinct grains, resulting in a fluffy and flavorful paella. Calasparra and bomba rice are relatively low in amylopectin, the starch molecule responsible for sticky rice texture. Therefore, they are suitable for paella, where a separate texture is desired.
Japonica rice

Japonica rice varieties are known for their short- to medium-grain size, low aroma, and distinctly sticky texture when cooked, due to their high amylopectin content. While not as widely consumed as indica rice varieties, japonica rice offers unique culinary attributes and potential health benefits. This type of rice is short-grain and sticky, making it ideal for dishes like sushi and risotto.

  • “Sushi” Rice: This short- to medium-grain rice variety is prized for its sticky texture, making it ideal for forming sushi rolls. It is a good source of fiber, which contributes to digestive health and gut microbiota balance. Sushi rice also contains essential minerals like manganese, phosphorus, and magnesium, which support overall well-being.
  • Arborio and Carnaroli Rice: These short-grain Italian rice varieties are renowned for their ability to absorb large amounts of liquid while retaining their distinct grains, producing a creamy and flavorful risotto. They are a good source of fiber, which aids digestion and promotes gut health. Additionally, Arborio and Carnaroli rice contain essential minerals like manganese, phosphorus, and magnesium, which contribute to overall well-being.
  • Sticky/Glutinous Rice: This short-grain rice variety is incredibly sticky due to its high amylopectin content. It is commonly used in Asian cuisine, both in sweet dishes like mango sticky rice and mochi, and as a savory side dish. Sticky rice is a good source of fiber, which promotes digestive health and gut microbiota balance. It also contains essential minerals like manganese, phosphorus, and magnesium, which support overall well-being.
  • Carolina Gold Rice: This long-grain rice variety is known for its subtle nutty flavor and medium-firm texture. It is a good source of fiber, which aids digestion and supports gut health. Carolina Gold rice also contains essential minerals like manganese, phosphorus, and magnesium, which contribute to overall well-being.
  • Wild Rice: While not technically a rice, wild rice is a grain native to North America that has a long history of cultivation. It is known for its chewy texture, nutty flavor, and high protein content. Wild rice is a good source of fiber, which promotes digestive health and supports gut health. It also contains essential vitamins and minerals like vitamin A, manganese, and phosphorus.


  • Brown rice is simply rice with its bran still on. It has more fiber and more nutritious than white rice.
  • For sticky rice choose short grained Japonica rice
  • For separated rice choose long grain Indica type rice such as Basmati or Jasmine rice.

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